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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article presents the results of an empirical study on how managers and subordinate staff conform to prescribed gender characteristics. Materials on gender psychology and sociology written by both Russian and foreign authors were used. The meaning of the terms “gender” and “gender characteristics” were more clearly spelled out, while separating the concepts “sex” and “gender” from each other. The authors specified the characteristics of managers and subordinate personnel of either sex in the city of Tyumen, while defining the degree of femininity, masculinity and androgyny in each group using the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. The respondents’ answers concerning the role and place of gender stereotypes in the workplace were analyzed; generalized characteristics of managers of either sex were compiled based on the answers they provided, while taking into account the respondent’s sex. When conducting research, the gender characteristics, qualities and skills inherent to each sex (regardless of whether they hold a managing or subordinate position) were ranked. Peculiarities inherent to managers from the city of Tyumen associated with handling a team of employees were determined. It was established that women more often than men possess and broadcast gender stereotypes based on traditional attitudes. Despite this, a tendency towards moving away from traditional gender mindsets and behavior was noticed among both subordinate staff and management, due to them conflicting with work conduct. Researchers recognized that in reality subordinate staff tends to fall in line with prescribed gender characteristics to a greater extent than management. An assumption was made that gender characteristics appear to be more pronounced among managers due to the fact that their personality has a more considerable effect on their actions than is the case with subordinate staff. A conclusion is drawn on the need to further study the phenomenon of androgyny among managers. A recommendation is given for applying the existing practical sociological methods, as well as an adapted socio-psychological set of instruments for each enterprise in particular, since one must consider the balance of androgyny, femininity and masculinity in any given team of employees when choosing the means and methods of administrative action when it comes to developing, approving and implementing management solutions, as well as appropriate conduct in conflict situations.
gender characteristics, gender, superiors, subordinates, femininity, masculinity, androgyny
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