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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
In multi-ethnic societies, the distribution of economic resources and observance of the citizens rights is inevitably viewed through the prism of ethnicity. Not only real, but also imaginary (existing only in people's ideas) ethnic inequality carries the threat of interethnic tension and social disintegration. The article assesses the prevalence of opinions about the influence of nationality on the possibilities of social advancement (on the example of the labour sphere) in the all-Russian context. The first part analyses the relationship of socio-demographic characteristics (age, level of education, type of settlement, economic status, employment structure) and belief in the influence of nationality on employment and entrepreneurial activity in the place of residence. In the second part, the ethnic marking of the labour sphere is considered in connection with settings in the sphere of interethnic relations and the real practice of perceived ethnic discrimination.
For the empirical basis of the study there was used the data of the all-Russian survey of the adult population, conducted in 2020 by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISRAS) in 22 regions, representing the regional diversity of the Russian Federation, taking into account the type of settlement (sample size - 2000 respondents).
The analysis showed that not all socio-demographic characteristics are associated with the formation of ideas about the ethnic conditionality of the labour sphere. In the all-Russian dimension, there is no connection with education, financial situation, or the structure of respondents' employment. Significant factors turned out to be age, type of settlement, type of ownership of the enterprise where the respondent works. The attitudes of respondents in the field of interethnic relations, the presence of ethnic prejudice, as well as the actual practice of perceived discrimination based on nationality, have a much stronger influence on the ideas under study. However, due to the low spread of this practice, it is concluded that the opinions formed by a significant part of Russians about the ethnic marking of employment and entrepreneurial activity should be considered as stereotypes that have developed due to the historical context of the country, and not as a result of a real infringement of rights in this area of life.
ethnicity, social promotion, ethnic inequality, equality of opportunities, interethnic attitudes, polyethnicity