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(Non)Religious Diversity and correlation of religious, spiritual and secular in the consciousness of modern man

Research Article

Elena D. Rutkevich Candidate of Philosophy, Associate professor,
Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia,
ORCID ID=0000-0002-4082-7198
(Non)Religious Diversity and correlation of religious, spiritual and secular in the consciousness of modern man.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2021. Vol. 12. No. 3. P. 54-78

Дата поступления статьи: 30.06.2021
This Article is downloaded: 168 times
Topic: Individual and society in the global postmodernity: socio-cultural metamorphoses

For citation:
Rutkevich E. D. (Non)Religious Diversity and correlation of religious, spiritual and secular in the consciousness of modern man Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2021. Vol. 12. No. 3. P. 54-78
DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2021.12.3.737


Non-religious diversity is growing in the world nowadays. In the current context it is understood not as a diversity of faiths, religions, non-religions, etc., but as a variety of types of non-religious consciousness and categories of non-religious identity. The article covers only a few aspects of this vast topic. First, the theoretical prerequisites and substantiations for the change in the Western non-religious identity taking place during the transition from the Westphalian to the post-Westphalian system of religious governance and the emergence of a special type of pluralism that is formed in the process of dedifferentiation of religion, globalization and the transformation of the “religion of place and nation” into a transnational religion “without place and nation”, when the ratio of religious, spiritual and secular in the mind of a postmodern person changes. Second, the author analyses the origins and causes of this transformation of non-religious consciousness in the "long 1960s". Third, the author traces the evolution of such types of non-religious diversity as “spiritual but not religious”, “none” and “post-protestants” and the concept of “spirituality” that connects them. The category "spiritual but not religious", sometimes perceived as dubious and unconvincing, appearing in the context of countercultural spirituality, in the author´s opinion, is very important for understanding Western, especially American irreligiousness in general and the processes taking place today in particular. The processes that are associated with the growth of "none" and the proliferation of "post-Protestants" related to the Woke culture, who claim the role of "saviours of humanity", attaching more importance to the "new post-Protestant ethics" (rather than religion and tradition), seeking to politicise religion, to sacralise politics, race and gender relations. Rejecting the "old religion" and proclaiming a "new ethics", moving from the ideals of diversity, universal tolerance and political correctness to "militant moralism and cruel dogmatism”, they confirm the idea of "complex irreligiousness" in the era of "late modernity", that seems to be a sign of the times and requires close attention of scientists.


non-religious diversity, spirituality, religion, irreligiousness, spiritual but not religious, none, pluralism, dedifferentiation of religion, post-protestants, new ethics, non-religious“complexity

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