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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
This article discusses the concept of “science (research) school” in the context of Russian social studies and its interpretations in the state social policy documents that regulate the sphere of Russian science. The interdisciplinary methodological approach to the Russian studies of these schools emerged at the intersection of philosophy, sociology, and psychology in the 1960s, and this article considers its meaning in modern studies. The interpretation and application of this concept in state science policy in connection with the consideration of additional funding for scientific schools for the maintenance and development of science are analysed. The significance of the traditional approach to the study of the history of science, to sociological and psychological studies of the phenomenon of scientific schools, and its failure in the study and identification of schools in contemporary Russian transformation are shown. Emphasis is placed on the characteristics and methods for identifying schools in the social sciences and humanities. The study’s conclusions are as follows. None of the frameworks of the concept of the science (research) school in the context of Russian historical and social research take into account the specifics of the social sciences and humanities, especially their modern development. Thus, it is difficult to identify real science schools. The state science policy does not take into account the modern criteria for the identification and funding of research schools. Rather, it is a source of their simulation and self-declaration within the scientific community. According to some studies, even if the science (research) school receives additional funding, it currently is not a structure that can ensure the development of science and the involvement of young people.
science (research) school, sociology of science, state science policy, criteria of science schools identification, science development