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Features of employment in Russia and the prospects for the formation of the Russian middle class as an actor of modernization


Elena M. Avraamova, Doctor of Economics associate of other organizaiton, ,
mailto: eavraamova@yandex.ru
S. T. Mairash, Doctor of Economics, Associate professor, main researcher, ,
mailto:
Features of employment in Russia and the prospects for the formation of the Russian middle class as an actor of modernization.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2011. Vol. 2. No. 2. P. 106-119


This Article is downloaded: 919 times
Topic: Topic of the Issue: The human capital of the Russian modernization

For citation:
Elena M. Avraamova., S. T. Mairash. Features of employment in Russia and the prospects for the formation of the Russian middle class as an actor of modernization. Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2011. Vol. 2. No. 2. P. 106-119



Abstract

The article examines the impact on the human capital of Russians of changes in the professional structure and the labor market over the past two decades, as well as the likelihood of developing in the context of these changes in Russia of such a successful modernization actor in other countries as the middle class. The middle class in modernized societies plays a fundamental role. It is characterized by rational behavior aimed at minimizing costs and maximizing profits, reflecting on their social and economic interests and the ability to promote and defend them at the institutional level, using the mechanisms of democracy. It contributes to modernization development of the country and its integration into the system of relations between developed countries. A social group capable of performing the functions of the middle class should be looked for at the intersection of the main identification features, which include material well-being, social and professional status and social self-identification of individuals or groups. The level of education determines social and professional status, which guarantees a certain level of income, which in turn determines social identity, etc. By the end of the 2000s, there was a significant increase in social resources of vertical mobility, the number of those who received higher education increased, the incomes of the population increased, and as a result, the social self-esteem of the majority of Russians became more positive. However, the number of households that have all the characteristics of the middle class has not actually expanded. The situation of status incompatibility continues to prevail, in which a high level of education is insufficiently demanded by the national economy. The reason is the shortage of staff that reflects imbalance between the existing job structure in the economy and the number of graduates of various specialties, which are prepared by the education system. It is caused by: segmentation of the labor market, which does not coincide with segmentation of education; simplification of labor activity; reduction of the quality of vocational education; deterioration of vocational training at work places. The article presents a detailed analysis of each of them, the conclusion is drawn that it is necessary to seamlessly incorporate an integrated labor policy into the modernization strategy.

Keywords

employment, middle class, modernization

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