Krzhizhanovskogo Street, 24/35, korpus 5, 117218, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7 (499) 128-85-19
Fax: +7 (495) 719-07-40
Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article poses the problem of inadequate attention to objective determinants of people’s behavior in empirical sociological research. The material for generalizations and conclusions is only subjective information, objective determinants are considered in a limited scope. As a result, the situation that caused this or that behavior is ignored. To take into account in the empirical sociological research not only the phenomena of consciousness, but also the social context in which these phenomena manifest themselves, we need a methodology of situational analysis. We consider a number of concepts that allow us to describe the elements of the situation, the mechanism of interaction of the agents that compose it. Among them are I. Gofman’s theory of frames, the basic provisions of the activist paradigm in sociology (the theory of social formation of P. Sztompka), and the theory of the establishment of the rules if T. Barnes and E. Flem, that combines structural and activist approaches, the subject-object approach and some others. The analysis of these concepts allowed to create a model of situational analysis at an enterprise. One of its main elements is the context in which this or that problem arises that is a combination of natural (geographical), economic, political and cultural conditions. A situation in this model is regarded as a chain of events that include interaction and interrelation between actors; between these people and the environment, and the general meaning that the participants assign to the situation. The situation has event frames, episodes, temporal and social parameters. In addition, everyone who is comprised in it, interprets the situation based on their interests, the sphere of competence, the value attitude to the key event. These interpretations are an element of analysis and are referred to as the “definition of the situation”. This approach to the analysis of the social situation at the enterprise will make it possible to identify a set of significant objective and subjective parameters of the problem under study; to form a system of attributes and indicators that allow to compare the social processes evolution dynamics at the enterprise; to determine the conditions for the influence of many different factors on the situation development.
situation, context, definition of situation, subject, behavior, analysis of concepts
1. Ross L., Nisbett R. Chelovek i situatsiya. Uroki sotsial’noy psikhologii [A person and situation. social psychology lessons]. Translate from Eng. V. V. Rumynskii, Ed. by E. N. Emel’yanov, V. S. Magun. Moscow, Aspekt Press, 2000 (in Russ.).
2. Tomas U., Znanetskiy F. Metodologicheskiye zametki [Methodological notes]. Amerikanskaya sotsiologicheskaya mysl’: Teksty. Ed. by V. I. Dobren’kov. Moscow, Izd-vo MGU, 1994, p. 183–195 (in Russ.).
3. Gofman I. Analiz freymov: esse ob organizatsii povsednevnogo opyta [Analysis of frames: an essay on the organization of everyday experience]. Translate from Eng.; Ed. by G. S. Batygin, L. A. Kozlova. Moscow, IS RAN; Fond «Obshchestvennoye mneniye», 2004. 750 p. (in Russ.).
4. Gofman I. Predstavleniye sebya drugim v povsednevnoy zhizni [Introducing yourself to others in everyday life]. Moscow, KANON-PRESS-TS, 2000. 304 p. (in Russ.).
5. Gofman I. Poryadok vzaimodeystviya (Poslaniye prezidenta Amerikanskoy assotsiatsii sotsiologov 1982 goda) [The order of interaction (the message of the president of the American association of sociologists of 1982)]. Teoreticheskaya sotsiologiya: antologiya v 2-kh ch. Translate from Eng., French, German, Italian, Compiler and general ed. S. P. Ban’kovskaya. Moscow, Knizhnyy dom «Universitet», 2002, vol. 2, pp. 60–104 (in Russ.).
6. Vakhshtayn V. S. Dramaturgicheskaya teoriya Irvinga Gofmana: dva prochteniya [The Erving Goffman dramaturgic theory: two readings]. Sotsiologicheskoye obozreniye, 2003, vol. 3, no 4, pp. 104–118 (in Russ.).
7. Archer M. Being human. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
8. Verlen B. Ob”yektivizm Poppera i metod kriticheskogo ratsionalizma [Objectivity of Popper and the method of critical rationalism] Sotsiologicheskoye obozreniye, 2002, vol. 2, no 4, pp. 3–24.
9. Shtompka P. Sotsiologiya sotsial’nykh izmeneniy [Sociology of social change]. Translate from Eng. Ed. by V. Yadov. Moscow, Aspekt-Press, 1996. 416 p. (in Russ.).
10. Burns T; Flam H. The Shaping of Social Organization. Social Rule System Theory with Application. London: Sage Publ., 1987.
11. Shchepan’skiy Ya. Elementarnyye ponyatiya sotsiologii [Elementary concepts of sociology]. Moscow, Progress, 1969. 240 p. (in Russ.).
12. Khabermas Yu. Otnosheniya k miru i ratsional’nyye aspekty deystviya v chetyrekh sotsiologicheskikh ponyatiyakh deystviya [Relations to the world and rational aspects of action in the four sociological concepts of action]. Sotsiologicheskoye obozreniye, 2008, vol. 7, no 1, pp. 3–25 (in Russ.).
13. Teveno L. Kreativnyye konfiguratsii v gumanitarnykh naukakh i figuratsii sotsial’noy obshchnosti [Creative configurations in the social sciences and figures of the social community]. Novoye literaturnoye obozreniye, 2006, no 77, pp. 285–313 (in Russ.).