Krzhizhanovskogo Street, 24/35, korpus 5, 117218, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7 (499) 128-85-19
Fax: +7 (495) 719-07-40
Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The phenomenon of success is covered in many works of philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists who study this concept, the ethics of success and the pursuit of it in different social groups. However, achieving success as a special type of activity that is emerging in modern Russia remains largely outside the scope of empirical analysis.
This article examines the genesis of the concept of "success" from antiquity to the present day, gives its definition as a subject of empirical research. The study was based on a survey conducted with the participation of the author among young Muscovites (25 - 30 years old). This age group was chosen because for sociological analysis the most interesting is the generational cohort that grew up and formed during the years of the liberal reformation, in a state and society that differ from the state and society of the Soviet type. In this age group, the most interesting are individuals who already have life experience and are implementing effective life strategies. Therefore, a group of Muscovites aged 25–30, who assess themselves as successful people, was selected for the analysis.
The analysis of relevant social and socio-psychological characteristics of the group of respondents who define themselves as “successful” is carried out in comparison with the group of “losers”. Comparative analysis showed that these groups implement two life programmes: survival and success, determined by status (education, position, income) and socio-psychological characteristics (attitude to work, methods of selection and setting goals, the level of their implementation, type of rationality). Each of these programmes has its own behavioural logic. Thus, low labour motivation and activity of “losers”, their low production status and very limited material opportunities, dooming them to survival, form a model of social maladjustment that impedes the healthy development of the economy and society. On the contrary, success in life is based on a high personal and material interest in one's work, on dedication to work and financial independence. Personal ways of achieving success play an equally important role here: self-confidence, optimism; the ability to set simple and clear goals for oneself, to show perseverance in their implementation. At the same time, it was revealed that successful young Muscovites remain people who are able to correlate their own and other people's interests, when a person perceives his being not alienated from the existence of other people. This is a new socio-cultural type, combining traits of a social character that were not very compatible in the recent past, realising an ethically and socially safe model of life success.
success, youth, self-sufficiency, success, quality of life, values, activity
Asmolov A. G. O modelyax uspexa v e`volyucii civilizacii [On models of success in the evolution of civilization]. Etika uspexa: Vestnik issledovatelej, konsul`tantov i LPR: 8. Tyumen–Moscow, 1996: 9–16 (in Russ.).
Babintsev V. P., Reutov E. V. Samoorganizaciya i «atomizaciya» molodezhi kak aktual`ny`e formy` kul`turnoj refleksii [Self-organization and "atomization" of youth as actual forms of cultural reflection]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2010: 1: 109–115 (in Russ.).
Bauman Z. Individualized society. Transl. from Eng. by V. L. Inozemcev. Moscow, "Logos", 2005: 390 (in Russ.).
Weber M. Protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism. In: Weber M. Selected works. Transl. from German by Yu. N. Davydov, P. P. Gaidenko. Moscow, Progress.1990: 808 (in Russ.).
Gorshkov M. K., Komissarov S. A. Revaluation of Culture and Challenges to sociological Sciences. Rossiya reformiruyushhayasya. Ezhegodnik, Issue 17. Moscow, New chronograph, 2019: 104–119 (in Russ.). DOI: 10.19181/ezheg.2019.1
Gorshkov M. K., Sedova N. N. Self-sufficient Russians and their life priorities. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2015: 12: 4–16 (in Russ.).
Guseltseva N. TS, Asmolov A. G. Hidden leadership and diversity of success models in modern society. Povolzhskij pedagogicheskij poisk (nauchnyj zhurnal), 2020: 2: 14–23 (in Russ.). DOI: 10.33065/2307-1052-2020-2-32-14-23
Davydova M. A. Cennosti kollektivizma i individualizma v molodezhnoj srede (opy`t e`mpiricheskogo issledovaniya) [Values of collectivism and individualism in youth (empirical research)]. Sociologicheskij analiz kul`tury` rossijskogo obshhestva vtoroj poloviny` XX – nachalo XXI vv [Sociological analysis of the culture of Russian society in the second half of the XX - early XXI centuries]. St. Petersburg, Intersocis, 2008: 202–206 (in Russ.).
Dvoretskaya M. Ya., A. B. Loshakova. Image of successfulness in modern psychological research. Mir nauki, 2016: 4: 2: 1–11 (in Russ.).
Zarubina N. N. Biznes v zerkale russkoj kultury [Business in the mirror of Russian culture]. Moscow, Ankil, 2004: 306 (in Russ.).
Karakhanyan E. V. The concept of success in Russian culture. Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta. Ser. Filosofiya, sociologiya, politologiya, kul`turologiya, 2008: 2: 362–365 (in Russ.).
Kniga Ekklesiasta ili Propovednika [The book of Ecclesiastes or Preacher]. Bibliya. Knigi Svyashhennogo pisaniya Vetxogo i Novogo Zaveta [Bible. Books of Scripture Old and New Testament]. Moscow, Biblejskie obshhestva, 1995: 618–625 (in Russ.).
Kravchenko N. Yu. Civilizational conditionality of civil identity. Socialnaya nauka i socialnaya praktika, 2014: 4 (8): 87–104 (in Russ.).
Lapin N. I. Bazovye cennosti rossiyan. Socialnye ustanovki, zhiznennye strategii, simvoly, mify [Basic values of Russians. Social attitudes, life strategies, symbols, myths]. Moscow, Gnosis, 2003: 448 (in Russ.).
Lapin N. I. Functional-oriented clusters of basic values of the population of Russia and its regions. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2010: 1 (309): 28–36 (in Russ.).
Mannheim K. Essays on the sociology of knowledge. The problem of generations, competitiveness and economic ambitions. Transl. by E. Dodin. Moscow, INION RAS, 2010: 162 (in Russ.).
Marshak A. L. Rozhkova L. V. Zhiznenny`j uspex v predstavleniyax rossijskoj molodezhi [Life success as seen by Russian youth]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2015: 8: 157–160 (in Russ.).
Mchedlova M. M., Gavrilov Yu. A., Shevchenko A. G., Kofanova E. N. The role of the religious factor in social adaptation in Russia. Russia is being reformed: Yearbook [collection of scientific articles]. Ed. M. K. Gorshkov. Moscow, New chronograph, 2016: 14: 468–495 (in Russ.).
Ot Matfeya svyatoe blagovovestvovanie [From Matthew the Holy gospel]. Bibliya. Knigi Svyashhennogo pisaniya Vetxogo i Novogo Zaveta [Bible. Books of Scripture Old and New Testament]. Moscow, Biblejskie obshhestva, 1995: 1011–1053 (in Russ.).
Pritchi Solomona [Proverbs of Solomon]. Bibliya. Knigi Svyashhennogo pisaniya Vetxogo i Novogo Zaveta [Bible. Books of Scripture Old and New Testament]. Moscow, Biblejskie obshhestva, 1995: 596–618 (in Russ.).
Rikel A. M. Nekotorye aspekty social`no-psikhologicheskoj problematiki uspekha [Some aspects of social and psychological problems of success]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta, 2012: 14: 1: 41–48 (in Russ.).
Rossijskoe obshhestvo i vyzovy vremeni [Russian society and challenges of time]. Book three, edited by M. K. Gorshkov. Moscow, Whole world, 2016: 424 (in Russ.).
Sogomonov A. Yu. Genealogiya uspekha i neudach [Genealogy Success and Failures]. Seriya: Biblioteka Centra sociologicheskogo obrazovaniya. Moscow, Solteks, 2008: 384 (in Russ.).
Temnitsky A. L. Life success values and their fulfillment for Russias working population. Vestnik instituta sotziologii, 2018: 9: 3: 121–142 (in Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2018.26.3.529
Tulchinsky G. L. Neudacha kak strategiya uspekha [Failure as a strategy for success]. Etika uspekha: Vestnik issledovatelej, konsul`tantov i LPR [Ethics of success: Bulletin of researchers, consultants and decision makers]. Issue 8. Is the new generation choosing success? / Ed. V. I. Bakshtanovsky, V. A. Churilov. Tyumen–Moscow, Izdanie Centra prikladnoj etiki i Finansovo-Investicionnoj korporacii «Yugra», 1996: 28–32 (in Russ.).
Chernyshevsky N. G. Polnoe sobranie sochinenij: v 15 t. T. 7: Statyi 1860–1861 godov. [Complete works: in 15 vol. Vol. 7: Articles 1860–1861]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel`stvo khudozhestvennoj literatury, 1950: 1082 (in Russ.).
Etika uspexa: Vestnik issledovatelej, konsul`tantov i LPR [Ethics of success: Bulletin of researchers, consultants and decision makers]. Issue 1. Tyumen–Moscow, Izdanie Centra prikladnoj e`tiki Tyumenskogo nauchnogo centra Sibirskogo otdeleniya RAN, 1994: 89 (in Russ.).
Yadov V. A. Nekotorye sociologicheskie osnovaniya dlya predvideniya budushhego rossijskogo obshhestva [Some sociological grounds for foreseeing the future of Russian society]. Rossiya reformiruyushhayasya [Russia reforming]. Ed. by L. M. Drobizheva. Moscow, Academia, 2002: 349–363 (in Russ.).
Fukuyama F. Trust: social virtues and creation of prosperity. New York, Penguin, 1996: 457.