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Problems of understanding the text by schoolchildren: a sociological view


Valeriy A. Mansurov Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia,
mailto: mansurov@isras.ru
ORCID ID=0000-0002-7915-4760
Tamara N. Lombina Candidate of Psychology, Associate professor, Non-for-Profit Organization «Chitaika», Moscow, Russia ,
mailto: lombina@mail.ru
Olesya V. Yurchenko Candidate of Sociology Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia,
mailto: olesya@mail.ru
Problems of understanding the text by schoolchildren: a sociological view.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2022. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 122-141

Дата поступления статьи: 17.05.2022
Topic: The education system in a changing society

For citation:
Mansurov V. A.., Lombina T. N.., Yurchenko O. V.. Problems of understanding the text by schoolchildren: a sociological view. Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2022. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 122-141
DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2022.13.3.835. EDN: JVDGMK




Abstract

The article considers understanding as a social and cognitive phenomenon, analyses the conditions for the formation of understanding in oral and written communications. Text comprehension is a fundamental element of human literacy, since without comprehension it is impossible to use information, reflect and draw conclusions, on the basis of which it is possible to achieve goals and participate in social life. Thus, in the modern world it is one of the key elements of socialisation. Understanding the text is based not only on the technical skills of reading and writing, but also on the general outlook of a person, his ideas about different areas of life. Studies conducted during mass distance learning have shown that a break in personal teacher-student communication during training had a negative impact on the reading skills of schoolchildren. In addition to regularity, both social attitudes and value views of parents, as well as the cognitive experience of the student, the level of his speech development are important for effective reading and understanding.

Reading is considered by the authors not just as a set of cognitive skills, but also as a social action. Studies show that the reading skills and comprehension of new knowledge by schoolchildren are influenced by: the socio-economic status of the family, the attitudes and principles adopted in it. The article also shows that a long time spent by schoolchildren on the Internet negatively affects both their comprehension of texts and empathy. In addition, the problems of integrating the individual into the digital environment and the impact of digitalisation on consciousness and thinking are analysed. On the background of the growth of leisure preferences on the Internet, there is a decrease in the importance of reading for schoolchildren. An increase in school load also negatively affects interest in reading. The authors hypothesise that social stratification between schoolchildren with different levels of literacy can be reduced by using earlier teaching of semantic reading. The authors show that the study of these issues is important not only for pedagogical and psychological sciences, but also for sociology.

Keywords

reading literacy, understanding of the text, functional literacy, semantic reading, learning to read, generation Z, sociology of education, educational psychology

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