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Migration processes in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of Mongolia


Innokentii G. Aktamov Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate professor, Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia ,
mailto: aktamov13@gmail.com
ORCID ID=0000-0002-8646-1048
Anna V. Vinokurova Candidate of Sociology, Associate professor, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia,
mailto: vinokurova77@mail.ru
ORCID ID=0000-0001-6415-4680
Yulia G. Grigoreva Candidate of Historical Sciences Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia ,
mailto: grigoreva-yulia23@mail.ru
ORCID ID=0000-0003-4267-2465
Migration processes in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of Mongolia.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2022. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 70-86

The reported study was funded by RFBR and MECSS, project no. 20-511-44003 «Russian and Mongolian migrant workers in the Asia-Pacific region».

Дата поступления статьи: 22.07.2022
Topic: Migration and identity

For citation:
Aktamov I. G.., Vinokurova A. V.., Grigoreva Y. G.. Migration processes in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of Mongolia. Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2022. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 70-86
DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2022.13.3.831. EDN: WRHQXC




Abstract

The article attempts to characterise the migration processes in Mongolia during the spread of a new coronavirus infection in the context of internal and external migration. The current situation in the global labour market has been put to the test of this extent for the first ever time. Mongolia is no exception in this regard. The government has developed a number of measures aimed at supporting the population of the country during the pandemic, including labour  migrants who found themselves in a difficult life situation. The example of Mongolia can be seen as typical in terms of measures to counter the spread of COVID-19. As for the measures of social assistance to its citizens, the case of Mongolia had no analogues in the world, since the government of the country and a number of large companies took over the costs of utility bills. Our study presents the socio-demographic characteristics of internal and external Mongolian migrants, as well as socio-economic parameters that indicate a drop in income levels.

In addition, interview data and a description of the migration strategies of Mongolian citizens are given. The processes of internal migration in Mongolia have formed characteristic trends, that are determined by a sharp gap between the capital - Ulaanbaatar and the country districts (aimags). The study revealed that the pandemic served as an incentive for the return migration of residents from the capital to the aimags. This is due to the individual strategies of citizens - the desire to avoid contact with the potentially infectious people and isolate themselves in the Mongolian steppe. This practice was of an episodic operational nature, and is currently almost not used, but is also one of the unique cases of responding to the spread of a new coronavirus infection. In general, the nature and reasons for the migration of the Mongolians are typical and are due to: the search for a better paid job, career prospects, improved well-being, and are also associated with the expansion of educational, cultural, leisure opportunities and, in general, ensuring the future of children.

Keywords

migration and demographic processes, external migration, internal migration, Mongolia, COVID-19 pandemic, socio-economic development, social well-being

References

 

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