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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article considers the Russian civilization as a socio-cultural community that includes different civilizational formations, the fact that determines its heterogeneous nature. An indicator of the heterogeneity of a society is its social structure, with civilisational rifts present - such an opposition of individual structural elements that has a civilizational character. In modern Russia, three civilizational rifts can be recorded. The first of them is based on the existence in the country of different levels of technical and technological development and, accordingly, of the nature and content of laborur of the population. The second rift is due to the material differentiation of the society: from the standard of living (on the threshold and beyond the poverty threshold) to the possession of multibillion fortunes, that leads to a deep difference in the quality of life of the population, that is an attributive feature of various civilizations. The third rift is related to the historically uneven development of the regions. Along with the regions that have entered or are already at the informational stage of development (they are in minority), most of the regions are at the industrial stage, and in some regions, a pre-industrial agrarian society with stable traditional values still prevails. Accordingly, informational, industrial and traditional subcivilizations coexist in the vastness of Russia. Property relations are considered among the significant factors of civilizational development. Property relations are first of all economic and juridical (legal) relations. Property as a social relation carries the historically stipulated content of the moral norms, justice, individual and social benefit. Property is embodied not only in legal forms, but also in customs, cultural patterns, habits, types of thinking and behavioral models. In Russia, the property right of an individual has always been oriented towards "internal justice", correlated in the public and individual consciousness with the prevailing ideas of the proper. Whereas in Western civilization there has been entrenched the priority of public relations based on the protected by law private interest of an individual. The reorientation of property relations in Russia to the Western model, including in the memory of our contemporaries, has not been a success due to the traditionally strong etacratic influences, the dominance of the “power-property” relationship.
heterogeneous civilizational community, social structuring, civilizational rift, property, stages of denationalization of property, land, power-property
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