Civic identity and acculturation expectations of Muscovites and Tallinn residents: the role of perceived threat.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2021. Vol. 12. No. 2. P. 194-215
This article is an output of a research project implemented as part of Basic Research Program at National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE University)
Дата поступления статьи: 25.04.2021
This Article is downloaded: 88 times
Topic: Young Researcher’s Tribune
Rodionov G. Y. Civic identity and acculturation expectations of Muscovites and Tallinn residents: the role of perceived threat Vestnik instituta sotziologii
. 2021. Vol. 12. No. 2. P. 194-215
Currently, Russia ranks fourth in terms of the influx of migrants (officially, their number in the country is 12 million), with most of them concentrated in Moscow. In Estonia, the influx of migrants is significantly lower, however, after the collapse of the USSR, quite a lot of Russians ended up in the status of an ethnic minority. At the moment they make up almost a quarter of the population of Estonia (the total number is more than 300 thousand people). This study examines the role of perceived threat as a moderator of the link between civic identity and acculturation expectations in two different ethnic groups in two different countries. The aim of the study is to provide the answers to the questions: What role does perceived threat play in the relationship between civic identity and the acculturation expectations of the host population? Is the perceived threat a moderator? What are the differences in the role of the perceived threat in different contexts: from Muscovites (ethnic Russians) to migrants and from Tallinn residents (ethnic Estonians) to Russians who are an ethnic minority? This study was conducted using an online socio-psychological survey. The responses of the survey participants determined the level of civic identity, perceived threat and acculturation expectations. The sample consisted of 214 ethnic Russians living in Moscow and 288 ethnic Estonians living in Tallinn. The results of the study showed that the perceived threat is a moderator of the connection between civic identity and integration among Muscovites. It is significant that here the cultural and economic threat became the moderator, and the physical threat turned out to be significant only at the level of tendencies. For Tallinn residents, the perceived economic threat turned out to be a moderator of the link between civicl identity and the "melting pot", and the physical threat - a moderator of civic identity and "segregation." Thus, the cultural threat did not show any influence among Tallinn residents. It should be noted that the moderation effect worked differently in each group. For Muscovites, the perceived threat was associated with integration attitudes. In Tallinn, it has shown links with two strategies that imply a complete lack of integration.
civic identity, perceived threat, acculturation, acculturation expectations, migration, Russia, Estonia
- Lebedeva N. Tatarko A. Sravnitel`ny` analiz strategiy vzaimodejstviya migrantov i naseleniya Rossii v Moskve i Stavropol`skom krae [Comparative analysis of the strategies between migrants and the population of Russia in Moscow and The Stavropol]. Strategii mezhkul`turnogo vzaimodejstviya migrantov i naseleniya Rossii: Sbornik nauchny`h statej. Ed. by N. M. Lebedeva, A. N. Tatarko. Moscow, RUDN, 2009: 336–375 (in Russ.).
- Tatarko A. Socialno-psihologicheskij kapital lichnosti v polikulturnom obshhestve [Socio-psychological capital of the individual in a multicultural society]. Moscow, Institut psikhologii RAN, 2014: 384 (in Russ.).
- Berry J. W. Contexts of Acculturation. Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition. Berry J. W., Phinney L. S., Sam D. L., Vedder P. (eds.). New York, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006: 27–42.
- Berry J. W. Mutual Intercultural Relations In Plural Societies (MIRIPS). Accessed 20.04.21. Aviable at: https://www.wgtn.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips
- Cao C., Meng Q. Chinese university students’ mediated contact and global competence: Moderation of direct contact and mediation of intergroup anxiety. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2020: 72: 58–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2020.03.002
- Caricati l. Perceived threat mediates the relationship between national identification and support for immigrant exclusion: A Cross-National Test of Ingroup Threat Theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2018: 66: 41–51. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2018.06.005
- Dimitrova R., Bender M., Chasiotis A., van der Vijver F. Ethnic identity and acculturation of Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2013: 37: 4: 1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.04.005
- Jubran H., Horenczyk G., Benet-Martinez V. Profiles of Multi-cultural Identity and Integration in a Conflictual Context. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2020: 77: 1–12. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2020.03.001
- Leong C., Komisarof A., Dandy j., Jasinskaja-Lahti I., Safdar S., Hanke K., Teng E. What does it take to become “one of us”? Redefining ethnic-civic citizenship using markers of everyday nationhood. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2020: 78: 10–19. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2020.04.006
- Louis V., Esses V., Lalonde R. National identification, perceived threat, and dehumanization as antecedents of negative attitudes toward immigrants in Australia and Canada. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2013: 43: 156–165.
- Mangum M. Revisiting economic threat and cultural concerns: Public opinion toward immigration and non-citizens by race. Social Science Research, 2019: 83. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2019.05.002
- Montreuil A., Bourhis R. Acculturation orientations of competing host communities toward valued and devalued immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2004: 28: 507–532. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.01.002
- Nimmerfeldt G. Identificational integration of second-generation Russians in Estonia. Studies of Transition States and Societies, 2009: 1: 1: 25–35.
- Saenz-Hernandez I., Lapresta-Rey C., Ianos M., Petrenas C. Identity and linguistic acculturation expectations. The attitudes of Western Catalan high-school students towards Morrocans and Romanians. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2020: 75: 10–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.12.001
- Schwartz S. J., Vignoles V. L., Brown R., Zagefka H. The identity dynamics of acculturation and multiculturalism: Situating acculturation in context. V. Benet-Martínez, Y.- Y. Hong (eds). Oxford library of psychology. The Oxford handbook of multicultural identity. New York, Oxford University Press, 2014: 57–93.
- Steffens M. C., Reese G., Ehrke F., Jonas K. J. When does activating diversity alleviate, when does it increase intergroup bias? An ingroup projection perspective. PLoS ONE, 2017: 12: 6. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178738.
- Stephan W. G., Stephan C. W. An Integrated Threat Theory of Prejudice. S. Oscamp (eds). Hillside, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000: 225–246.
- Stephan W. G., Boniecki K., Ybarra O., Bettencourt A., Ervin K., Jackson L., McNatt P., Renfro C. The role of threats in the Racial Attitudes of Blacks and Whites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2002: 28: 9: 1242–1254.
- Tajfel H., Turner J. C. The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel, W. G. Austin (eds). Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, Nelson Hall, 1986: 276–293.
- Vetik R. Ethnic Conflict and Accommodation in Post-Communist Estonia. Journal of Peace Research, 1993: 30: 4: 271–280.
- Vetik R., Helemäe J. The Russian Second Generation in Tallinn and Kohtla-Järve: The TIES Study in Estonia. Amsterdam University Press, 2011: 250.
- Yakobov E., Jurchik T., Solopieieva-Jurcikova I., Ryder A. Expectations and acculturation: Further unpacking of adjustment mechanisms within the Russian-Speaking community in Montreal. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2019: 68: 67–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2018.11.001
- Yoo C. Acculturation strategies of multi-cultural family adolescents in South Korea: Marginalization, separation, assimilation and integration. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2021: 81: 9–19. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2020.12.011