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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Based on objective and subjective assessments, the article draws conclusions about the personal employment of the population of the residents of the Jewish Autonomous Region. The main demographic problems reflecting the current situation in the region are revealed. It is demonstrated that, in comparison with other Far Eastern regions, the Jewish Autonomous Region is in the position of an outsider in some indicators (for example, in mortality), and in others - in a position of a leader (for example, in reducing the growth of unemployment). The general socio-economic situation in the region testifies to the persistence of negative trends in the post-perestroika period. These conclusions are confirmed by the subjective assessments of the residents of the region, obtained in the course of a sociological study. Among the interviewees who consider themselves unemployed, there are both self-employed and economically inactive. It was revealed that about 22% of the respondents are employed in the informal sector, moreover, more than half of them are referred to as “forced-employed”, since they have not been able to officially find a job. The urban population overwhelmingly prefers standard forms of employment, perceiving informal employment rather as a possible addition to the main place of work. In rural areas, the situation is the opposite, since informal employment takes the leading place, in fact performing the functions of the main employment. At the same time, the population rather passively uses the possibilities of obtaining additional income, preferring to live on benefits or to take odd jobs. The population practically does not use the opportunity to improve their qualifications or obtain an additional (new) work specialty. More than 60% of the respondents partially provide for their families, using archaic economic practices, i.e., collecting and processing natural resources (wild plants, hunting and fishing), that may indicate both a certain cultural phenomenon of the local population and a lack of financial resources in a significant part of the population. A certain mythologisation of the role of large agricultural enterprises in the development of the territory take place among the local rural population. A significant part of the surveyed rural population considers the creation of agricultural jobs to be a priority area of development, despite the fact that this type of activity has never been the main one and has not brought much income to the region, given the difficult agro-climatic conditions of the region.
interregional migration, personal employment, unemployment, informal types of employment, demographic trends
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