Volume 15 Issue 1 was published. 
The main theme of the issue: Methodology in Russian Sociology


The articles are published in the Bulletin of the Institute of Sociology (Vestnik Instituta Sociologii) in Russian with a special supplement in English.
There are some full-text articles translated into English that originally was published in the journal in Russian.
For full-text articles in English please click here
2024. Vol. 15. No 1 published 04/01/2024
2023. Vol. 14. No 4 published 12/25/2023
2023. Vol. 14. No 3 published 09/30/2023
2023. Vol. 14. No 2 published 06/30/2023
All Issue:

2024 ( Vol. 15)  |  1  
2023 ( Vol. 14)  |  4   3   2   1  
2022 ( Vol. 13)  |  4   3   2   1  
2021 ( Vol. 12)  |  4   3   2   1  
2020 ( Vol. 11)  |  4   3   2   1  
2019 ( Vol. 10)  |  4   3   2   1  
2018 ( Vol.   9)  |  4   3   2   1  
2017 ( Vol.   8)  |  4   3   2   1  
2016 ( Vol.   7)  |  4   3   2   1  
2015 ( Vol.   6)  |  4   3   2   1  
2014 ( Vol.   5)  |  4   3   2   1  
2013 ( Vol.   4)  |  2   1  
2012 ( Vol.   3)  |  2   1  
2011 ( Vol.   2)  |  2   1  
2010 ( Vol.   1)  |  1  

Krzhizhanovskogo Street, 24/35, korpus 5, 117218, Moscow, Russia

Tel.: +7 (499) 128-85-19
Fax: +7 (495) 719-07-40

e-mail: vestnik@isras.ru

Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences

web-site: https://www.fctas.org

Historical memory: schoolchildren and students about the history of Russia

Research Article

Mariia A. Podlesnaia Candidate of Sociology
Institute of sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia
ORCID ID=0000-0002-2159-4958
Gallina V. Soloviova Candidate of Sociology
Municipal autonomous educational institution gymnasium No. 1 of the city of Tyumen, Tyumen, Russia
ORCID ID=0000-0001-7765-2515
Ilona V. Il`ina
Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia
ORCID ID=0000-0003-3118-2372
Historical memory: schoolchildren and students about the history of Russia.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2021. Vol. 12. No. 2. P. 55-82

Дата поступления статьи: 17.05.2021
This Article is downloaded: 123 times
Topic: Historic Memory Sociology (To 80th Anniversary of Great Patriotic War Start)

For citation:
Podlesnaia M. A., Soloviova G. V., Il`ina I. V. Historical memory: schoolchildren and students about the history of Russia. Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2021. Vol. 12. No. 2. P. 55-82
DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2021.12.2.711


The article raises the problem of preserving national identity in the context of hybridisation / universalisation of the values ​​of the Russian youth. In this regard, the concept of "historical memory" is applied to the data of two studies carried out in schools and five universities (both at the capital and regional level). The purpose of the article is to assess the content and vector of historical knowledge of students about their country, the attitude to this knowledge among young people and adolescents at different educational levels. The process of continuity of school and university education in the national history is considered, the points of breaks are revealed. A general assessment is given on which periods of Russian history retain the connection with the young generations of Russians, and on which ones go into the past, revealing the main narratives of historical memory. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. the continuity and general assessment among schoolchildren and university students is maintained in relation to at least two events in the Russian history - the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 and the historical figure of Peter I as the first emperor of Russia, who turned the country to the West and made a breakthrough in its modernization; 2. there is a gap in historical memory in relation to events associated with the period of Ancient Rus, a connection with the Soviet past is revealed; schoolchildren even single out the Soviet period as the most interesting and memorable; 3. there are gaps in the continuity of historical knowledge at the level of school and university education, this concerns, for example, such an event as “the annexation of Crimea to Russia in 2014”; 4. among schoolchildren dominates (58%) a group of students who are proud of the country history, whilst there is a group of those who are indifferent to their history or express negative assessments (8%) and have a neutral attitude to the history of Russia (34%), there is a high percentage (76%) of those who believe that there are different events in the history of Russia and it is important to remember the “dark” pages of one´s own history; 5. as a result, we see young people behaving differently depending on the age, who, for some reason, began to doubt their country and are ashamed of its past, but at the same time are ready to participate in the country's transformations.


historical memory, memory studies, identity, national self-awareness, national history, patriotism, school, university, adolescents, student youth



  1. Argunova E. V., Timofeeva M. A. The 1917 revolutionary events and October leaders in St.-Petersburg population view. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2018: 4: 145–152. DOI: 10.7868/S0132162518040165 (in Russ.).

  2. Badmaev V.N. Mentality and historical memory. Vestnik Kalmy`czkogo universiteta, 2012: 1(13): 78–84 (in Russ.).

  3. Britvina I. B. The problem of preserving and updating the memory of the Great Patriotic War. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2015: 5: 18–21 (in Russ.).

  4. Golovashina O. V. An associative experiment to measure civic identity. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2015: 7: 64–71 (in Russ.).

  5. Golovashina O. V., Linchenko A. A., Anikin D. A. Memory of the great patriotic War: Victory Day in the historical consciousness of Russian. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2017: 3: 123–133 (in Russ.).

  6. Gorshkov M. K., Petuxov V.V. The October revolution of 1917 and its aftermath in the public perception of modern Russians (experience in sociological measuring). Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2018: 1: 6–18. DOI: 10.7868/S0132162518010026 (in Russ.).

  7. Gorshkov M.K. Russian youth: to the history and role in modern society. Gumanitarij Yuga Rossii, 2019: 8: 4: 16–25. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.23683/2227-8656.2019.4.1 (in Russ.).

  8. Gorshkov M.K., Bagramov E`. A. “New nationalism” and the issue of nations in the interpretation of American social theorists. Vestnik RUDN. Seriya: Sociologiya, 2020: 20: 4: 733-751. DOI: 10.22363/2313-2272-2020-20-4-733-751 (in Russ.).

  9. Dement`ev I.O. What is historical memory? Rec.: Safronova Yu.A. Historical Memory: An Introduction: A Study Guide. SPb.: Izd-vo Evropejskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2019. 220 p. (ser. «Uchebniki Evropejskogo universiteta»). Istoricheskaya e`kspertiza, 2019: 2 (19): 206–218 (in Russ.).

  10. Emel`yanova T.P. Social`ny`e predstavleniya kak instrument kollektivnoj pamyati (na primere vospominanij o Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojne) [Social representations as a tool for collective memory (on the example of memories of the Great Patriotic War)]. Psixologicheskij zhurnal, 2002: 4: 49–59 (in Russ.).

  11. Zaostrovcev A. P. Polemika o modernizacii: obshhaya doroga ili osoby`e puti? [The Modernization Controversy: A Common Road or Special Paths?]. St. Petersburg, Izdatel`stvo Evropejskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2020: 310 (in Russ.).

  12. Zubok Yu.А. Youth: Life Strategies in a New Reality. Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: ekonomicheskiye i sotsial'nyye peremeny, 2020: 3: 4–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14515/monitoring.2020.3.1688 (in Russ.).

  13. Koroteczkaya L. V. The Holocaust as a Social and Cultural Construct of Memory: The Trauma Factor and the Position of the Victim. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2016: 3: 107–117 (in Russ.).

  14. Krizisy` perelomny`h e`poh v istoricheskoj pamyati [Crises of critical epochs in historical memory]. Pod red. L.P. Repinoj. Moscow, IVI RAN, 2011: 336 (in Russ.).

  15. Latur B. Novogo vremeni ne by`lo. E`sse po simmetrichnoj antropologii [There was no new time. Essays on Symmetrical Anthropology]. Transl. from Fr. by D.Ya. Kalugina. St. Petersburg, Izdatel`stvo Evropejskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2006: 296 (in Russ.).

  16. Makarova L. V. The Great Patriotic War: What Remains in Personal Memory? Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2015: 11: 107–114 (in Russ.).

  17. Malinkin A. N. Historical memory of the Great Patriotic War: epistemologic and genealogic aspects. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2020: 5: 23–34. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250009409-2 (in Russ.).

  18. Merzlyakova I. L., Linchenko A. A., Ovchinnikova E`. V. Ob istoricheskom soznanii sovremennoj studencheskoj molodyozhi [On the historical consciousness of modern student youth]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2014: 12: 89–96 (in Russ.).

  19. Migliorati L., Mori L., Kolomiecz V. K. Ten` klassicheskogo naslediya i eyo preodolenie. Pamyat` o dvizhenii soprotivleniya i «konfliktnost`» pamyatny`h meropriyatij [The shadow of the classical heritage and its overcoming. Memory of the resistance movement and the "conflict" of commemorative events]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2014: 1: 108–115 (in Russ.).

  20. Molodyozh` v gorode: kul`tury`, sceny` i solidarnosti [Youth in the City: Cultures, Scenes and Solidarity]. [Tekst]: koll. monogr. / Ed. By E. L. Omel`chenko; Nacz. issled. un-t «Vy`sshaya shkola e`konomiki». Moscow, Izd. dom Vy`sshej shkoly` e`konomiki, 2020: 502 (in Russ.).

  21. My`slivecz N.L., Romanov O.A. Historical memory as a socialcultural phenomenon: an attempt of sociological reconstruction. Vestnik RUDN. Seriya: Sociologiya, 2018: 18: 1: 9–19. DOI: 10.22363/2313-2272-2018-18-1-9-19 (in Russ.).

  22. Nikolai F. A review of Ju. A. Safronova, Istoricheskaya pamyat: vvedenie [Historical memory: an introduction]: a textbook. St. Petersburg: European University at St. Petersburg press, 2019, 220 pp. Antropologicheskij forum, 2019: 43: 180–188. DOI: 10.31250/1815-8870-2019-15 (in Russ.).

  23. Nora P. Vsemirnoe torzhestvo pamyati [World commemoration]. Neprikosnovenny`j zapas, 2005: 2–3(40–41): 202–208 (in Russ.).

  24. Nora P. Franciya-pamyat`[France-memory]. St. Petersburg, Izd-vo Sankt-Peterburgskogo un-ta, 1999: 325 (in Russ.).

  25. Omel`chenko E. L., Andreeva Yu. V. What remains in the family history: the memory of “the soviet” in the conversation of three generations. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2017: 11: 147–156. DOI: 10.7868/S0132162517110162 (in Russ.).

  26. Petukhov V.V. Russian Youth and Its Role in Society Transformation. Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: ekonomicheskiye i sotsial'nyye peremeny, 2020: 3: 119–138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14515/ monitoring.2020.3.1621 (in Russ.).

  27. Podlesnaya M.A. The development of Russian society from the point of view of values of student's youth. Sotsiologiya religii v obshchestve Pozdnego Moderna, 2020: 9: 145–154 (in Russ.).

  28. Pokida A. N., Zy`bunovskaya N. V. The dynamics of historical memory in Russian society (based on the results of sociological monitoring). Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2016: 3: 98–107 (in Russ.).

  29. Politika pamyati v sovremennoj Rossii i stranah Vostochnoj Evropy`. Aktory`, instituty`, narrativy` [The politics of memory in modern Russia and the countries of Eastern Europe. Actors, institutions, narratives]. Kollektivnaya monografiya. Ed. By A. I. Millera, D. V. Efremenko. St. Peptersburg, Izdatel`stvo Evropejskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2020: 632 (in Russ.).

  30. Popov N.P. Russian and American generations of the 20th century: where have Millennials come from? Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: ekonomicheskiye i sotsial'nyye peremeny, 2018: 4: 309-323. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14515/monitoring.2018.4.15 (in Russ.).

  31. Puzanova Z.V., Narbut N.P., Larina T.I., Tertyshnikova A.G. Typology of historical memory about the World War II: Methodological aspects of the study (on the example of the RUDN students). Vestnik RUDN. Seriya: Sotsiologiya, 2020: 20: 2: 292–306. DOI: 10.22363/2313-2272-2020-20-2-292-306 (in Russ.).

  32. Repina L.P. Istoricheskaya pamyat` i sovremennaya istoriografiya [Historical memory and modern historiography]. Novaya i novejshaya istoriya, 2004: 5: 39–52 (in Russ.).

  33. Repina L.P. Kul`turnaya pamyat` i problemy` istoriopisaniya (istoriograficheskie zametki) [Cultural memory and problems of historiography (historiographic notes)]. Preprint WP6/2003/07. Moscow, GU VShE`, 2003: 44 (in Russ.).

  34. Repina L. P. Memory of Events in Measurements of Space and Time. Izv. Saratov Univ. Nov. ser. Ser. Istoriya. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2020: 20: 1: 34–40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1819-4907-2020-20-1-34-40 (in Russ.).

  35. Repina L.P. Events and Images of the Past in Historical and Cultural Memory. Novoe i proshloe, 2016a: 1: 82–99 (in Russ.).

  36. Repina L.P. Historical Memory and National Identity: Approaches and Research Methods. Dialog so vremenem, 2016b: 54: 9–15 (in Russ.).

  37. Rolfes J. Didaktika istorii: istoriya, ponyatie, predmet [Didactics of history: history, concept, subject]. Prepodavanie istorii v shkole, 1999: 7: 29–33 (in Russ.).

  38. Rostovceva L. I., Gelfond M. L., Miroshina E. Yu. Patriotic education in experts and senior pupils’ eyes. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2019: 8: 75–83. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250006163-2 (in Russ.).

  39. Ryaguzova E. V. Collective Memory and Instances of Temporality. Izvestiya Saratov Univ. Nov. ser. Ser. Akmeologiya obrazovaniya. Psikhologiya razvitiya, 2019: 8: 2 (30): 138–145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/2304-9790-2019-8-2-138-145 (in Russ.).

  40. Ryazantsev I.P., Podlesnaya M.A., Bogdan I.V. Universalism of Student Youth Values and the Development of Russian Society. Vestnik RUDN. Seriya: Sotsiologiya, 2021: 21: 1: 97–109. DOI: 10.22363/2313-2272-2021-21-1-97-109 (in Russ.).

  41. Ryazantsev I.P., Podlesnaya M.A., Kozlov I.I. University: its values and traditions in its professors’ memories (based on educational biographies study). Vestnik SPbGU, 2014: 12: 4: 221–228 (in Russ.).

  42. Ryazantsev I.P., Podlesnaya M.A., Petrova A.A., Kozlov I.I., Paрar` A.M. Value orientations of the student youth in religious and secular universities. Vestnik RUDN. Seriya: Sociologiya, 2016: 16: 3: 559–575 (in Russ.).

  43. Safronova Yu. A. Istoricheskaya pamyat`: vvedenie: uchebnoe posobie [Historical Memory: An Introduction: A Study Guide]. St. Petersburg, Izdatel`stvo Evropejskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2020: 224 (in Russ.).

  44. Safronova Yu.A. The third wave of memory studies: Going against the grain for twenty-three years. Politicheskaya nauka, 2018: 3: 12–31. DOI: 10.31249/poln/2018.03.01 (in Russ.).

  45. Toshchenko Zh.T. What happens to the historical memory of the Great Patriotic War? Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2020: 5: 18–22. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250009419-3 (in Russ.).

  46. Ushkin  S. G., Koval  E. A., Zhadunova  N. V. From Theoretical Design to Practical Viewpoints: Implementation of Ethical Principles in Youth Life Strategies. Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: ekonomicheskiye i sotsial'nyye peremeny, 2020: 3: 66-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14515/ monitoring.2020.3.1596 (in Russ.).

  47. Halbwachs M. Kollektivnaya i istoricheskaya pamyat` [Collective and historical memory]. Neprikosnovenny`j zapas, 2005: 2–3: 8–27 (in Russ.).

  48. Halbwachs M. Social`ny`e ramki pamyati [Social framework of memory] / Transl. from Fr. by S.N. Zenkina. Moscow, Novoe izdatel`stvo, 2007: 348 (in Russ.).

  49. Hatton P. Istoriya kak iskusstvo pamyati [History as an art of memory] / Transl. from Eng. by V. Yu. By`strova. St. Petersburg, Vladimir Dal`: Fond Un-t, (Akad. tip. Nauka RAN), 2003: 422 (in Russ.).

  50. Shirokalova G. S. Historical memory of the young people: village vs city. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2020: 9: 28–37. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250010005-8 (in Russ.).

  51. Shirokalova G. S. Communicative memory: studying family stories (materials of sociological workshop at the University). Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2018: 5: 145–153. DOI: 10.7868/S0132162518050136 (in Russ.).

  52. Shtop-Rutkovska K. Cyber memory, or what we (do not) remember on the net. Local memory analysis: Bialystok and Lublin. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2015: 4: 130–139 (in Russ.).

  53. Birkner T., Donk A. Collective memory and social media: Fostering a new historical consciousness in the digital age? Memory studies. 2018: 13: 4: 367–383.

  54. Gustafsson K. Chinese collective memory on the Internet: Remembering the Great Famine in online encyclopaedias. Memory studies, 2017: 12: 2: 184–197.

  55. Kidman J., O’Malley V. Questioning the canon: Colonial history, counter-memory and youth activism. Memory studies, 2020: 13: 4: 537–550.

  56. Kuhn A., Biltereyst D., Meers Ph. Memories of cinemagoing and film experience: An introduction. Memory studies, 2017: 10: 1: 3–16.

  57. Liebermann Y. Born digital: The Black lives matter movement and memory after the digital turn. Memory studies, 2020: 14: 5: 1–18.

Content 2021' 37