Krzhizhanovskogo Street, 24/35, korpus 5, 117218, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7 (499) 128-85-19
Fax: +7 (495) 719-07-40
Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
This article is an extension of a series of works dedicated to the shaping of Russian society’s structure. The author’s reasoning is based on the assumption that, when evaluating changes in the structuration of Russian society over a long period of time – from the mid-1800’s and until today, which is the focus of the series of articles we mentioned – one should bear in mind that the most radical and, in many respects, catastrophic shifts occurred as a result of two groundbreaking events – the Bolshevik coup of 1917 and the collapse of the Soviet Union with the consequent transition to a market economy, which took place during the 1990’s. Both of these occurrences disrupted the evolutionary development of Russian society, and caused social shifts which cannot be definitively assessed, with them having radically changed society’s structuration. Influenced by these events, the country’s social composition underwent some fundamental changes, as did the people’s life-worlds, relationships between different social groups and layers of the population, and finally interactions with the new elites that sprouted from these social crises. In this article, which deals with processes that took place during the 1920’s and 1930’s, the author once again relies on the methodology of A. Giddens’, who suggested using the theory of structuration to analyze social relationships in space and time. Structuration processes are examined through the lens of studies conducted during that period, in the heat of the moment, so to speak. Even when taking into account the political restrictions of the time, you can still trace how exactly contemporary scientific studies and statistical research reflected those social processes, including the structuration of society. This article utilizes the works of P. Sorokin, A. Rashin, L. Minz, A. Khryasheva and S. Prokopovich, among other researchers, as well as materials from the 1897, 1926 and 1937 population censuses. The article is limited to the period from the beginning of the century and up until the 1920’s and 1930’s, and consequently the studies that were conducted during that period.
sociology, structuration, social and professional structure, 1926 and 1939 censuses, working class, peasantry
“The first commandment”: Grain procurement in the USSR. 1931–1932. Ed. by V.V. Kondrashin. Moscow, MFD, 2016: 784 (In Russ.).
Ahiezer A.S. Russia: a criticism of historical experience. Sociocultural dynamics of Russia. Novosibirsk, Sibirsky Khronograf, 1998: 804 (In Russ.).
Aksenova O.V. Paradigm of social action: professionals in Russian modernization. Moscow, IS RAS publ., 2016: 304 (In Russ.).
All-Union Population Census of 1937: General Results. Collection of documents and materials. Compiled by V.B. Zhiromskaja, Y.A. Poliakov. Moscow, ROSSPEN, 2007: 320 (In Russ.).
Beylin A.E. Personnel of specialists of the USSR. Their formation and growth. Moscow, CUNHU of Gosplan USSR, 1935: 420 (In Russ.).
Bol’shakov A.M. Soviet village (1917–1925): economy and everyday life. Leningrad, Priboy, 1925: 263 (In Russ.).
Caplin V.V. Statistics of victims of Stalinism in the 30th. Letter to the editor. Voprosy Istorii = Issues of History, 1989: 4: 175–181 (In Russ.).
Chajanov A.V. Peasant economy. Selected Works. Moscow, Economika, 1989: 492 (In Russ.).
Contemporary peasant studies and agrarian history of Russia in the XX century. Moscow, ROSSPEN, 2015: 743 (In Russ.).
Danilov V.P. History of the Russian peasantry in the XX century. Selected Works in 2 vols. Moscow, ROSSPEN, 2011: 831 (In Russ.).
Giddens A. The Constitution of Society. Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Moscow, Akademichesky project, 2005: 528 (In Russ.).
Il’in V.V., Panarin A.S., Ahiezer A.S. Theoretical Political Science: Reforms and Counterreforms in Russia. Cycles of the modernization process. Ed. by V.V. Il’in. Moscow, MSU publ., 1996: 400 (In Russ.).
Kabo E.O. Sketches of the working life: The experience of a monographic study of the domestic working life. Vol. 1. Moscow, VCSPS publ., 1928: 290 (In Russ.).
Khriaschiova A.I. Groups and classes in the peasantry. Moscow, CSU of USSR, 1926: 172 (In Russ.).
Kondrashin V.V. Impact of collectivization on the fate of Russia in the XX century. Rossiyskaja istorija = Russian History, 2018: 4: 3–13 (In Russ.).
Lenin (Ulianov) V.I. Development of capitalism in Russia. Full Coll. of Works. Vol. 3, Moscow, Politizdat, 1971: 501 (In Russ.).
Litoshenko L.N. Socialization of land in Russia. Novosibirsk, Sibirsky Khronograf, 2001: 536 (In Russ.).
Markus B.L. On the question of the methods of studying the social composition of the proletariat in the USSR. Istorija proletariata SSSR = History of the Proletariat of USSR, 1930: 2: 23–71 (In Russ.).
Mints L.E. Rural overpopulation and the labor market in Russia. Moscow – Leningrad, State publ., 1929: 470 (In Russ.).
Mints L.E. How the unemployed lives (budgets of the unemployed). Moscow, Voprosy truda, 1927: 64 (In Russ.).
Mints L.E. Command personnel of industry, transport and agriculture in the USSR. Moscow, Voprosy truda, 1926: 86 (In Russ.).
Novikova L.I., Sizemskaja I.N. Three Models of Russia’s Development. Moscow, IPh RAS publ., 2000: 272 (In Russ.).
Phenomenov M.J. Modern village. The experience of local lore research of one village (the village of Gadyshi, Valdai district, Novgorod province). Part II. Old and new life: social skills. Leningrad – Moscow, State publ.,1925: 212 (In Russ.).
Prokopovich S.N. Farming: Based on budgetary surveys and dynamic censuses. Berlin, Kooperativnaja mysl’, 1924: 244 (In Russ.).
Rashin A.G. Metalworkers of the USSR. Moscow, VCSPS publ., 1930: 233 (In Russ.).
Shults E.E. Russian revolution and the problem of modernization. Vestnik RUDN. Serija Istorija Rossii = RUPF Bulletin. Series History of Russia, 2015: 3: 12–13 (In Russ.).
Shuvaev K.M. Extinction and revival of the village (S. Zhivotinnoe and the village of Mokhovatka of the Voronezh District of the Central Black Earth Region). Moscow, State publ.,1929: 125 (In Russ.).
Sorokin P.A. The influence of the profession on human behavior and the reflexology of professional groups. In: Issues of studying and educating personality. Ed. by V.M. Bekhterev. Petrograd, Gosizdat, 1921: 397–419 (In Russ.).
Sorokin P.A. City and village (bio-sociological characteristics). In: Rural Russia. Vol. IV. Prague, 1923: 3–23 (In Russ.).
Strumilin S.G. Problems of labor economics. In: Selected works in 5 vols. Vol. 3. Moscow, Nauka, 1964: 212 (In Russ.).
Strumilin S.G. Workers’ time budget 1923 – 1924. Planovoe hoziaystvo = Planned Economy, 1925:7: 119–150 (In Russ.).
The dynamics of peasant farms in 1920–1925 Results of the dynamic nest census. 1920–1925. Moscow, Gosplan USSR, 1931 (In Russ.).
Village under the NEP. Someone is considered a fist, someone is a worker. Moscow, Grandov`s publ.,1924: 104 (In Russ.).
Volkov A.G. Selected Works on Demography. Moscow, NRU HSE publ., 2014: 567 (In Russ.).
Volkov A.G. Population census of the USSR in 1937. History and materials. In: Serija “Istorija statistiki” = Series “History of Statistics”. Release 3–5. Vol. II. Moscow, 1990: 6–63 (In Russ.).
Zheleznov F. Voronezh village. Issue 1. Bolshevereiskaya volost (economy and everyday life of the village). Voronezh, 1926 (In Russ.).
Zhiromskaja V.B., Kiselev I.N., Poliakov Y.A. Half a century under the heading “secret”: All-Union population census of 1937. Moscow, Nauka, 1996: 152 (In Russ.).