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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
This article, based on data from an expert survey, describes and interprets data from statistical observations together with the results of a mass survey conducted in the Republic of Dagestan, which was undertaken in order to study the regional characteristics of internal (within the country) and external (international) migration. It was discovered that regional migration processes, as perceived by the masses in Dagestan, reflect the statistical data, which shows a mechanical decline in the population due to a migratory exchange with other regions within the country, as well as a minor influx of migrant workers from nearby foreign countries. The main directions of internal migration for Dagestan’s residents appear to be highly developed in terms of their socio-economic situation regions such as Moscow and the cities of West Siberia. The material from the expert survey allows for meaningfully interpreting the characteristics of how such a factor as migration affects the demographic, socio-economic and sociopolitical aspects of life in Dagestan. Dagestan’s people’s firmly established outlook on the positive influence of migration on the region’s socio-economic situation, which supposedly decreases tension on the local labor market, is complemented by a notion that preserving such a tendency would create demographic risks in the long term such as aging of the population and a decrease in the birthrate. The majority of Dagestan’s residents are not yet concerned with the influx of immigrants, with the local population showing a high degree of tolerance in regards to external migrants. The article argues that such a tolerant and friendly attitude towards migrants has to do with both the modest amount of non-transit migrants in Dagestan and the fact that they tend to be similar to most peoples of Dagestan in terms of their socio-cultural profile, them being ethnic Muslims. Regardless, the demand for the government to implement measures aimed at the social adaptation and cultural integration of migrants (mainly teaching said migrants the Russian language and basic information on Russian legislation) is present even in Dagestan’s society, which is accustomed to ethnical and confessional diversity.
internal and external migration, attitude towards migrants, tolerance, social adaptation of migrants, interethnic relations
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