Volume 12 Issue 3 was published. 
The main theme of the issue: Individual and society in the global postmodernity: socio-cultural metamorphoses
The articles are published in the Bulletin of the Institute of Sociology (Vestnik Instituta Sociologii) in Russian with a special supplement in English.
There are some full-text articles translated into English that originally was published in the journal in Russian.
For full-text articles in English please click here
2021. Vol. 12. No 3 published 09/30/2021
2021. Vol. 12. No 2 published 06/30/2021
2021. Vol. 12. No 1 published 04/01/2021
2020. Vol. 11. No 4 published 12/28/2020
All Issue:

2021 ( Vol. 12)  |  3   2   1  
2020 ( Vol. 11)  |  4   3   2   1  
2019 ( Vol. 10)  |  4   3   2   1  
2018 ( Vol.   9)  |  4   3   2   1  
2017 ( Vol.   8)  |  4   3   2   1  
2016 ( Vol.   7)  |  4   3   2   1  
2015 ( Vol.   6)  |  4   3   2   1  
2014 ( Vol.   5)  |  4   3   2   1  
2013 ( Vol.   4)  |  2   1  
2012 ( Vol.   3)  |  2   1  
2011 ( Vol.   2)  |  2   1  
2010 ( Vol.   1)  |  1  

Krzhizhanovskogo Street, 24/35, korpus 5, 117218, Moscow, Russia

Tel.: +7 (499) 128-85-19
Fax: +7 (495) 719-07-40

e-mail: vestnik@isras.ru

Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences

web-site: https://www.fctas.org

Life success and social status factors in the minds of Russians

N.E. Tikhonova Doctor of Sociology, Professor, Main Researcher, Institute for Social Policy, National Research University Higher school of economics; Main Researcher, Institute of Sociology, Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
mailto: netichon@rambler.ru
ORCID ID=0000-0002-5826-4418
Life success and social status factors in the minds of Russians.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2018. Vol. 9. No. 4. P. 11-43

DOI: 10.19181/vis.2018.27.4.536

This Article is downloaded: 305 times
Topic: Non-monetary inequalities in the lives of Russians

For citation:
N.E. Tikhonova. Life success and social status factors in the minds of Russians. Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2018. Vol. 9. No. 4. P. 11-43
DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2018.27.4.536


This article reveals that, during the last 15 years, drastic shifts have occurred in the subjective social structure of Russian society: the people for the most part no longer consider themselves to be “social outsiders”, while Russian society itself has become a society undoubtedly dominated by a subjective middle-class, albeit predominantly a lower middle-class. However, such a positive shift does not equal Russians being completely satisfied with the situation at hand when it comes to stratification, since their actual position in the status hierarchy is currently much lower not only than desired, but also lower than those status positions which they reckon they should be occupying in this hierarchy “in all fairness”. Russian people’s dissatisfaction is mostly a result of them considering opportunities for success and prosperity to be associated with the social, economic and cultural capital of one’s parents, as well as with various unlawful practices (such as corruption, bribery), not only with one’s hard work or quality education. These views seem to be stable over time, and to some extent they are similar to the views of German people. However, in the eyes of Russians various unlawful practices (primarily bribery) play a greater role when it comes to achieving success in life. In addition to that, one’s parents’ education, as well as one’s own education, hard work and ambition play a slightly less significant role (which is decreasing year after year) in Russia. This means that, as time passes, more Russian people are becoming convinced that a person’s personal efforts and goals are not a key factor in achieving life success and high status positions in Russian society. Statistical verification indicates that these views are objectively justified, since, according to the former, upper strata of Russian society are becoming increasingly more closed, with lower strata starting to close as well. High indexes of self-reproduction of opposing status groups within mass layers of the population, together with an increasing polarization of the population (primarily young people) – these are all dangerous tendencies in terms of their socio-political and economic consequences, which lead to authorities being delegitimized, as well as Russian people losing their motivation to achieve success in life through their own efforts.


social structure, subjective stratification, status, status hierarchy, inequality, public consciousness, public opinion


Alesina A., Giuliano P. Preferences for Redistribution. Handbook of Social Economicp, 2011, vol. 1, pp. 93–131.

Bednost' i bednye v sovremennoy Rossii [Poverty and the poor in modern Russia]. Ed. by M. K. Gorshkov, N. E. Tikhonova. Moscow, Ves' mir, 2014. 304 p. (in Russ).

Benabou R., Ok E. Social Mobility and Demand for Redistribution: the POUM Hypothesip. The Quarterly Journal of Economicp, 2001, vol. 116, no 2, pp. 447–487.

Bogomolova T. Y., Tapilina V. S. Economicheskaja stratifikacija: ob`ektivnoe i sub`ektivnoe izmerenie [Economic stratification: an objective and subjective dimension]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 1997, no 9. pp. 28–41 (in Russ).

Bourdieu P. Sociologija politiki [Sociology of politics]. Moscow, Socio-Logos, 1993. 336 p. (in Russ).

Chernysh M. F. Transmissija kul'turnogo capitala i social'naja mobil'nost' [Transmitting cultural capital and social mobility]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2013, no 8, pp. 42–53 (in Russ).

Corneo G., Gruner H. Individual Preferences for Political Redistribution. Journal of Public Economics, 2002, vol. 83, no 1, pp. 83–107.

Giddens A. The Constitution of Society. Cambridge, Polity Press, 1984. 402 р.

Gudkov L. Rossija v riadu drugih stran: k probleme nacional'noy identichnosti [Russia among other countries: the problem of national identity]. Monitoring obschestvennogo mnenija: economicheskie i social'nye peremeny, 1999, no 1, pp. 39–47 (in Russ).

Hirschman A., Rothschild M. The changing tolerance for income inequality in the course of economic development. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1973, no 87, pp. 544–566.

Inglehart R., Velcel K. Modernizacija, kul'turnye izmenenija i demokratija: Posledovatel'nost' chelovecheskogo razvitija [Modernization, cultural change and democracy: The sequence of human development]. Moscow, Novoe izdatel'stvo, 2011. 464 p. (in Russ).

Kenworthy L., McCall L. Inequality, Public Opinion and Redistribution. Socio-Economic Review, 2008, vol. 6, no 1, pp. 35–68.

Kohn M. L., Schooler C. Work and Personality. An inquiry into the impact of Social Stratification. Norwood, Ablex publ. corp., 1983. 389 р.

Kosova L.B. Osnovanija uspeha: rezul'taty sravnitel'nogo analiza ocenok sub`ektivnogo statusa [Grounds for success: the results of a comparative analysis of subjective status assessments]. Vestnik obschestvennogo mnenija. Dannye. Analiz. Diskussii, 2014, no. 3–4. pp. 118–127. (in Russ).

Mareeva S. V. Spravedlivost' i neravenstvo v obschestvennom soznanii rossijan [Justice and inequality in the public consciousness of Russians]. Journal of Institutional Studies, 2015, vol. 7, no 2, pp. 109–119 (in Russ).

Mareeva S. V. Spravedlivost' i ravenstvo v mechtah rossijan i realii sovremennoy Rossii [Equity and equality in the dreams of Russians and the realities of modern Russia]. “Ideal'noe obschestvo” v mechtah liudey v Rossii i v Kitae. Ed. by M. K. Gorshkov, N. E. Tikhonova, P. M. Kozyreva, Li Pey Lin'. Moscow, Novy Khronograf, 2016, pp. 152–174 (in Russ).

Model' dohodnoy stratifikacii rossiyskogo obschestva: sostojanie, dinamika, factory [Model of income stratification of Russian society: state, dynamics, factors]. Ed. by N. E. Tikhonova. Moscow, Novy khronograf, 2018. 368 p. (in Russ).

O chiom mechtajut rossijane: ideal i real'nost' [What do Russians dream of: the ideal and reality]. Ed. by M. K. Gorshkov, R. Krumm, N. E. Tikhonova. Moscow, Ves' mir, 2013. 400 p. (in Russ).

Rossija – novaja social'naja real'nost'. Bogatye. Bednye. Sredniy klass [Russia is a new social reality. Rich. Poor. Middle class]. Ed. by M. K. Gorshkov, N. E. Tikhonova. Moscow, Nauka, 2004. 259 p. (in Russ).

Rossiyskoe obschestvo i vyzovy vremeni. Kniga piataja [Russian society and the challenges of time]. Ed. by M. K. Gorshkov, V. V. Petuhov. Vol. 5. Moscow, Ves' Mir, 2017. 427 p. (in Russ).

Shkaratan O. I. Social'no-economicheskoe neravenstvo i ego vosproizvodstvo v sovremennoy Rossii [Socio-economic inequality and its reproduction in modern Russia]. Moscow, Olma Media Group, 2009. 560 p. (in Russ).

Sredniy klass v sovremennom rossiyskom obschestve [The middle class in contemporary Russian society].Ed. by M. K. Gorshkov, N. E. Tikhonova, A. J. Chepurenko. Moscow, ROSSPEN, 1999. 247 p. (in Russ).

Sredniy klass v sovremennoy Rossii. Opyt mnogoletnih issledovaniy [The middle class in modern Russia. Experience of many years of research]. Ed. by M. K. Gorshkov, N. E. Tikhonova. Moscow, Ves' mir, 2016. 368 p. (in Russ).

Tikhonova N. E. Faktory social'noy stratifikacii v uslovijah perehoda k rynochnoy economike [Factors of social stratification in the transition to a market economy]. Moscow, ROSSPEN, 1999. 220 p. (in Russ).

Tikhonova N. E. Faktory stratifikacii v sovremennoy Rossii: dinamika sravnitel'noy znachimosti [Factors of stratification in modern Russia: dynamics of comparative significance]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2014, no 10, pp. 23–35 (in Russ).

Tikhonova N. E. Social'naja stratifikacija v sovremennoy Rossii: opyt empiricheskogo analiza [Social stratification in modern Russia: the experience of empirical analysis]. Moscow, IS RAS publ., 2007. 320 p. (in Russ).

Tikhonova N. E. Social'naja struktura Rossii: teorii i real'nost' [The social structure of Russia: theories and reality]. Moscow, Novy Khronograf, IS RAS publ., 2014. 408 p. (in Russ).

Content 2018' 27