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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
This article examines the tendencies for demographic development in Buryatia, the factors for overcoming depopulation, and an increase in life expectancy. Birthrates are revealed, while identifying the reasons for their decline, which include a decrease in the amount of women of childbearing age, a decline in the population’s life quality, changes in the manner of marital and reproductive behavior, and the state of health. Revealed are factors which affect the birthrate vector, expressed in a surge occurring after 2005. These factors include adaptation to new living conditions, a more active government demographic policy, more favorable new conditions for having children, as well as a more positive socio-psychological and spiritual context in society. Government measures for helping families with children are given positive assessment. Examined is the impact of such a factor as mortality on the demographic situation in Buryatia, as well as other Siberian regions. It is noted that especially high levels of mortality were witnessed in the 1990’s, particularly among citizens of active working age. 2006 marked the beginning of a gradual decrease in mortality, which was influenced by a relative scarcity of elderly people (the generation of wartime and post-war years), as well as demographic policy measures on behalf of the government and its regional structures. From 2006 until 2014 a small natural increase in the population of Buryatia occurred. This value turned out to be higher than the same parameter observed in the Siberian Federal district and in the entire Russian Federation. The following years (2015, 2016) saw a decrease in natural population growth, determined by a decline in the birthrate due to a serious decrease in the amount of women of the most reproductive age, as well as to a slump in the efficiency of demographic policy measures. It is noted that the coefficient, although having decreased, still remains at a high level. Analyzed are causes for mortality, which include blood circulatory system diseases, tumors, and external factors. A lack of doctors is noted, as well as a high level of child mortality. Population movement issues are analyzed, one of the main ones being a migration loss primarily of the most qualified personnel. Those leaving are mostly ethnic Russians.
Demographic development, birthrate, mortality, natural increase, life expectancy, region, ethnos, migration, national characteristics.
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