Volume 15 Issue 1 was published. 
The main theme of the issue: Methodology in Russian Sociology


The articles are published in the Bulletin of the Institute of Sociology (Vestnik Instituta Sociologii) in Russian with a special supplement in English.
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2024. Vol. 15. No 1 published 04/01/2024
2023. Vol. 14. No 4 published 12/25/2023
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Social Security for Groups of Russians with Average Income

Research Article

Polina M. Kozyreva, Doctor of Sociology first deputy director, , Doctor of Sociological Sciences, First Deputy Director, Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS; Head of the Center for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute for Social Policy, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
mailto: pkozyreva@isras.ru
Aleksander I. Smirnov, Doctor of Sociology leading researcher, , Doctor of Sociological Sciences, Leading Researcher, Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia
mailto: smir_al@bk.ru
Social Security for Groups of Russians with Average Income.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2016. Vol. 7. No. 4. P. 94-120

This Article is downloaded: 334 times
Topic: Social Well-Being

For citation:
Kozyreva P. M., Smirnov A. I. Social Security for Groups of Russians with Average Income. Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2016. Vol. 7. No. 4. P. 94-120
DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2016.19.4.436


This article analyzes issues regarding social security for Russians with average income, and their ability to stand up to the threats and dangers of a society in crisis. The analysis is based on data from the “Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE)”. The analysis revealed that the deteriorating financial status of the Russian people, which occurred after the country fell into a series of economic crisis, has lead to the high-income segment serious thinning out, together with a significant expansion of groups with average income. Meanwhile each group, regardless of financial status, demonstrated a considerable misalignment when it comes to the objective and subjective financial position of those surveyed. Worsening conditions, as well a decrease in life-quality for segments of the population with average income, was indicated by a growing dissatisfaction among the people with their material status and with life in general, them increasingly becoming concerned with employment issues and fearing unemployment, as well as their growing anxiety and ever worsening assessments of their life prospects. The main reasons for decreasing social security of those segments of the population with average income were found to be a decline in real income, decreasing availability of various monetary and non-monetary sources of income, as well as less access to social benefits and social services. Employers more frequently resorting to unconventional forms of behavior on the labor market – which help businesses to overcome the crisis with minimal losses and to limit the increase of unemployment (administrative leaves, working on a shortened schedule, salary delays, “hidden” remuneration etc.) – has lead to significantly more violations of the rights of laborers with low or average income. The amount of people among them who are working without officially registering their labor relations has increased. However, despite the development of these and many other negative tendencies, the situation when it comes to the social security of those groups with average income does not seem to be catastrophic.


income, social security, security threats, living standards, social health, social welfare, social benefits and guarantees, economic crisis.


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