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The traditional economic practices of Mongolian-speaking nomads: peculiarities and opportunities for the development of livestock farming in Mongolias and Russias adjacent territories


Damdin D. Badaraev , associate of other organizaiton, , andidate of sociology sciences, senior research fellow, Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan studies, Siberian branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude, Republic of Buriatia, Russia.
mailto: damdin80@mail.ru
The traditional economic practices of Mongolian-speaking nomads: peculiarities and opportunities for the development of livestock farming in Mongolias and Russias adjacent territories.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2016. Vol. 7. No. 3. P. 175-194

DOI: DOI: 10.19181/vis.2016.18.3.420


This Article is downloaded: 182 times
Topic: Russia and Mongolia: Similarities and Peculiarities

For citation:
Damdin D. Badaraev. The traditional economic practices of Mongolian-speaking nomads: peculiarities and opportunities for the development of livestock farming in Mongolias and Russias adjacent territories. Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2016. Vol. 7. No. 3. P. 175-194
DOI: https://doi.org/DOI: 10.19181/vis.2016.18.3.420




Abstract

This article is dedicated to the current condition of livestock farming, which is a traditional economic practice of nomads in Mongolia’s and the Republic of Buryatia’s (Russian Federation) neighboring territories. Noted is a common ancestry, and a common ethnic and cultural identity between Buryats and Mongols, as well as some distinctive features attributed to their modern stage economic structure. Revealed are the main factors which influenced the sedentarization (a transition from a nomadic lifestyle to a sedentary one) of the former nomads, which lead to changes in the Buryats’ lifestyle. The article cites statistical data, results from comprehensive sociological field studies, as well as secondary analysis of studies conducted by those who represent related scientific disciplines – economists, ecologists, geographers, etc. Based on these studies a general picture of the condition of livestock farming in rural areas of Buryatia and Mongolia is presented. Results from sociological studies show how market mechanisms affect the current everyday lives of Mongol nomads, selling livestock products, as well as the activation of migratory processes. Observed are the negative effects that the ore-mining industry has on the state of pastures and wells. Despite the existing difficulties, livestock farming in Mongolia is rapidly developing, with an annual increase in livestock population, thus there are no expectations for the disappearance of nomadic livestock farming and pastoralism in the near future. Active attempts to restore traditional economic practices associated with nomadic livestock farming are underway in Buryatia. Substantiated are the ecological safety, low-cost and efficiency of conducting nomadic livestock farming in the harsh, sharply continental natural-climatic conditions of Siberia and Mongolia. The existing difficulties within the agro-industrial and agricultural sectors of Buryatia’s economy, as well as a lack of clear prospects for the development of rural areas, lead to a decrease in social facilities, deteriorating social infrastructure and a massive relocation of the rural population to cities. In light of this situation certain problems occur when it comes to reviving traditional nomadic livestock farming in the region. The existence of vast unused territories, an emerging interest among the rural population for reviving native breeds of livestock, and the emergence of target programs for the development of rural areas give reason to believe that realizing the potential for developing nomadic livestock farming in Buryatia’s agricultural sector is very much possible.



Keywords

nomads, nomadic livestock farming, lifestyle, trans-border territories, Mongolia, Buryatia.

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