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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
This article pays close attention to the ever growing role of the modern techno-sphere in forming mankind’s living environment. Attention is focused on the uncontrollable nature of its transformation, its nonlinear development, and certain difficulties when it comes to evaluation and predictions. A scientific problem is brought forward, namely the need to search for mechanisms which would allow predicting and evaluating the way anthropogenic manifestations affect humankind’s current living environment, as well as to generate scientific algorithms for calculating situations in the system of vectors within the evolutionary movement of the techno-sphere. Presented within the scope of the matter are the results of analyzing an All-Russian expert survey, conducted in 2015 by the Belgorod National Research University’s Sociological Study Center. The results of this study allowed establishing the frequency and probability for the occurrence of anthropogenic emergency situations in various regions, the suitability of the safety level for Russia’s techno-sphere, as well as indexing the threat level for specific emergency situations and defining the true indicators for the susceptibility of economic sectors and anthropogenic emergency situations to the influence of technogenous factors. Data from the sociological study are refracted through the functional peculiarities of two types of regions: with minimal and maximal technogenous risk. This article thoroughly analyzes all the measures that are taken in Russia for reducing and preventing technogenous threats and catastrophes. Examined are groups of measures according to their degree of efficiency. Analyzed is the possibility of implementing a group of measures for each emergency situation and each field of the techno-sphere. In addition to evaluating techno-sphere manifestations in general, successfully established were indexes for the effects that the techno-sphere has on the emergence of social risks. Ultimately the general risk-capacity of the modern techno-sphere was determined, while also stressing the need to create means of prediction and systems that would allow making decisions for rational and effective control over the modern technological environment.
techno-sphere, emergency situations, technogenous factors, techno-sphere safety, risk-capacity, social risks.
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