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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
This article is dedicated to issues of time use among laborers – a large social group within the country’s population. Its empirical basis includes data from studies which are composed of 50 years of observation in the field of studying laborers’ time budget (1965-2014). Up until 1998 surveys were conducted using a uniform method under the supervision of V. D. Patrushev. In 2014 research was conducted at 8 industrial enterprises located in five Russian regional capitals: Bryansk, Vladimir, Kirov, Omsk and Pskov. However, time budget was examined in only three of them: Vladimir, Omsk and Pskov. Not only objective data on time-use was utilized in the analysis, but also the laborers’ subjective assessments concerning various aspects of their own everyday activities. The article consists of five chapters: a general evaluation of time use among laborers in 2014; working hours and types of activities associated with work; domestic labor and other household activities (unpaid labor); leisure time as a resource for regenerative and developmental activities; the dynamics of laborers’ time use and tendencies for changes in everyday activities from 1965 to 2014. The article examines the actual behavior of laborers in various typical groups of everyday activities, while also analyzing the structuring of daily and weekly time reserves, including its differentiation depending on the gender of those surveyed. Laborers’ working hours are thoroughly evaluated, as well as their structure, while attempting to assess labor intensity. Revealed is the general and specific behavior of laborers who work for enterprises located in territories which are part of the Central, North-West and Siberian federal districts. Analyzed are the dynamics of laborers’ time use, and formulated are conclusions concerning the direction for changes in their actual behavior: labor, regenerative and developmental during a period from 1965 to 2014. Revealed is the authors’ standpoint when it comes to the government’s social policies, and when it comes to what should be considered keeping in mind laborers’ actual behavior in their everyday activities.
laborers, time budget, working hours, domestic labor, leisure time activities, labor activities, regenerative activities, developmental activities, tendencies for change.
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