Krzhizhanovskogo Street, 24/35, korpus 5, 117218, Moscow, Russia
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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The social contradictions and serious diversity of ideological dispositions in mass consciousness that have flared up at the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century obviously require urgent resolution. The technologies of social reconciliation on the base of revival of state domination in social life actively elaborated and insistently promoted by the political elite do not correspond to requirements of modern conditions. The complex relationships of political elites and active society can no longer be explained by classic structural-functional theories according to which the elites are called upon to perform unidirectional guidance of the masses. The article examines modern communicative approaches, emphasizing the bilateral, interactive nature of relations of the ruling elites and society and developing the principles of "communicative ethics", as the tasks most relevant to searching for mutual understanding and reaching social consensus. The process of conflict resolution in modern society should be guided not by the ambitions “to take victory on the battlefield”, but by the “skill to negotiate”. The article raises issues of the development of the competitive communication space in Russia, analyzes the theoretical concept of the "public sphere", where social interests and demands are clarified, and find support with rational arguments and where the discursive culture is created. The discursive qualities imply the ability to listen to and hear the opponent, and forming attitudes to reach compromises and take decisions acceptable to all sides. The Western European and Russian historical circumstances for public sphere formation are compared, and the current obstacles of formation of civil consciousness in Russia and possibilities and prospects of developing the public sphere are examined.
Public sphere, mass consciousness, ideology, social and political discourse, communicative ethics