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Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article analyzes the processes that determine the nature of inter-ethnic communications in Sochi on the basis of the conducted sociological studies, and examines inter-ethnic attitudes of the citizens. Inter-ethnic communications are understood in the context of this work as interpersonal and intergroup relations of people in everyday practice. Inter-ethnic relations within the framework of the constructivist approach are viewed through the prism of the interrelations of ethnic groups and the state, ethnic majority and minorities, and mechanisms of power distribution between ethnic groups and elites. As a basis for measuring social distance, the Bogardus social distance scale is used, which allows to determine the degree of psychological readiness for rapprochement or, conversely, the rejection of people of a different nationality. Based on the analysis of the empirical data of our study, the circumstances and situations that determine the processes of inter-ethnic communication of the groups inhabiting Sochi were revealed, which can contribute to the development of a resource or conflictogenic potential of polyethnicity. Inter-ethnic concord and peaceful resolution of contradictions in the region are driven by its historically formed multinationality, state ideology and public discourse, which provides conditions for concord between the groups with different interests and daily behavior. A relatively high level of favorable inter-ethnic attitudes has been found, quite open and tolerant attitude towards inter-ethnic contacts, but despite high tolerance, half of the population has strong anti-immigrant sentiments and growing protective geopolitical sentiments. This is related to the emergence or exacerbation of problems that actualize public frustrations and xenophobic sentiments of the population. These include: socio-economic differentiation, tense situation on the Georgian-Abkhaz and Georgian-South Ossetian borders, anxiety about the announcement of Sochi as the host city of the 2014 Olympics, the changing context of the migration situation, which violates the existing ethnic division of labor, exacerbates inter-group rivalry. Nevertheless, the positive balance in the Sochi region prevails. The success of maintaining such positive trend in the dynamics of the balance of inter-ethnic relations depends on which practices will be more in demand to solve a number of ongoing issues.
ethnic interactions, ethnic attitudes, tolerance, Sochi
1. Voroshilov V. Materialy po istorii i etnografii Bol’shogo Sochi s drevneyshikh vremen do vtoroy poloviny XIX veka (Istoriko-etnograficheskiye ocherki Ubykhii) [Materials on the history and ethnography of Greater Sochi from ancient times to the second half of the XIX century (Historical and ethnographic essays of Ubysh)]. Sochi, 1979 (in Russ.).