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Attitudes towards professions as an indicator of social changes


David L. Konstantinovskiy, Doctor of Sociology main researcher, , Doctor of Sociology, Chief Researcher, Head of Department of Sociology of Education, Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia
mailto: scan21@mail.ru
Attitudes towards professions as an indicator of social changes.
Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2021. Vol. 12. No. 4. P. 155-166

Дата поступления статьи: 04.10.2021
This Article is downloaded: 156 times
Topic: Russian education as a mirror of social changes

For citation:
Konstantinovskiy D. L.. Attitudes towards professions as an indicator of social changes. Vestnik instituta sotziologii. 2021. Vol. 12. No. 4. P. 155-166
DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2021.12.4.757



Abstract

Analysis of attitude towards various professions (attractiveness or prestige) is a integral part of studying the choice of profession. The dynamics of the attitude of young people to the studies indicates that it is clearly connected with the current situation and changes when new phenomena arise in it. Thus, in the data of the 1960s echoes of recent events are noticeable - the launch of the first Soviet "Sputniks", the Yuri Gagarin's flight. The connection with the demand for professions, one way or another related to science and technology, is obvious: the attractiveness of the occupations of scientists and engineers is great. During the years of economic difficulties and shortages, attention was drawn to the rise in the attractiveness of the professions of a seller, an accountant, which had previously been among the lowest rated. Then the time came when the leaders were professions of a bank employee, a lawyer, a businessman, a foreign trade worker, and scientists, teachers fell lower and lower on the scale of attractiveness. In the 2010s, a civil servant joined the leaders.

The opinions expressed in each subsequent year belong to a different cohort of young people. Analysis of the dynamics over a long period of time also allows one to draw conclusions about the characteristics belonging to different generations. At the same time, it is found that in order to interpret the data, it is necessary to consider the attitude towards classes in connection with the accumulated experience of the family as well. Family experiences are translated into educational and vocational orientations of children. This is confirmed by data on motivation and the actual choice of education and profession. The conclusion that the formation of youth orientations is associated not only with the perception of the current situation, but also with the social experience of previous generations, is based on the materials of over 50 years of data.

Keywords

Choice of profession, youth, attractiveness of professions, prestige of professions, social changes

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